It is commonly accepted that the man spends much of his life in the workplace. It is therefore necessary to control the environmental conditions in the workplace, because:
Bad lighting has resulted in the so-called visual fatigue (headache, eye irritation, diplopia, drowsiness, reduced ability to adapt and convergence) and the glare phenomenon (visual capacity reduced due to the presence of high brightness areas within the field).
The low quality of indoor air in buildings leads to a number of diseases: Legionnaires’ disease (a form of pneumonia due to legionella bacterium, which grows in the airways and the filters of air conditioners), fever of air conditioners (due to micro toxins that develop in liquids parts of air conditioners), multiple chemical sensitivity, allergy syndrome “sick building”.
Occupational exposure to unfavorable thermal environment leads either 1) in pathological conditions of hot working environment (heat stroke, hyperpyrexia, heat syncope, loss of water and salt, burns, heat rash), or 2) in pathological conditions of cold (frostbite, psyxeis , respiratory infections).
Noise causes non both acoustic (tachycardia, hypertension, digestive disorders, personality, etc. stress.), And acoustic effects (hearing loss-selective reduction of acoustic acuity).
Ionizing radiation (radioactivity) is a cause of both burns and cancers.
The chemicals are the cause of various pathologies, depending upon the route entering the body (skin, respiratory, digestive system).
Lighting: there must be sufficient natural lighting. Workplaces breaks & first aid should have direct visual contact with the outside space. That rule excludes areas where for technical reasons this is not possible, as well as areas with a footprint area of over 2000 square meters, which have enough openings in orofi.O artificial lighting should be relevant to the type and nature of work, it has characteristics similar to the natural light, to minimize glare and does not create excessive contrast and brightness changes. The intensity of emergency lighting is 1/100 the volume of general and certainly not less than 1 LUX (light intensity measurement unit). The switches of artificial lighting must be easily accessible even in the dark and be located near the entrances and exits and along corridors.
Ventilation of enclosed workplaces: as ventilation is defined as the movement of air in such a way that the used indoor air is constantly replaced by fresh.
A ventilation system in order to be considered effective, should:
to provide thermal comfort conditions
distribute sufficient quantities of fresh air, to meet the requirements of workers in the building.
to isolate and remove odors and pollutants through the control of air pressure with special provisions.
If artificial ventilation systems are used, they must operate continuously, kept in good operating condition and any damage be marked out automatically. Also, it should avoid exposure of workers to drafts which cause discomfort.
Kidnapping various factors (gases, vapors, particles, etc.) for the specific working conditions where gases are produced, vapors, particles and various powders, must be discharged or retained by suitable means. Factors abducted, if harmful, must be processed (condensation, precipitation, neutralization, etc.) before expelled to the environment.
space temperature: p iges heat is the air temperature, the AveC, humidity, radiation from the sun, machinery and various tasks. The thermal balance of the body occurs with tisthermorrythmisis operation and is a result of production and heat dissipation. For the proper functioning of the human body’s internal body temperature should be kept around 37 0C. The parameters involved in the estimation of the thermal environment are:
climatic factors: temperature, humidity, air velocity, thermal radiation
other factors: labor gravity, clothing, working.
If the microclimatic conditions of the workplace are identified by air conditioners, they should be suitably adjusted so that:
The air speed is not greater than 0,2 m / sec
appropriate temperature difference between indoors and outdoors should be consistent with the values of the table below:
During the summer months the maximum temperature difference between interior and exterior should not exceed 5 0C.
The relative air humidity should be between 40-60%.
Noise: Noise is defined as any annoying, unwanted or simply offensive to human sound. The main physical characteristics of noise is the frequency and intensity. The frequency sets the number of complete vibrations per unit of time and is measured in cycles per second (Hz). Man can understand and tolerate sounds in the frequency range from 16 to 20000 Hz. As intensity is defined as the amount of sound energy passing through a unit area which is perpendicular to the propagation time of sound waves per unit of time. In audiology as intensity measurement unit used in decibel (dB). Based PD 149/2006 defined as the following daily exposure to noise level values:
The 87 dB as the exposure limit value
The 85 dB as a maximum value for measures
The 80 dB as a minimum price for taking action.
Above the ceiling must in accordance with that law to take steps to reduce exposure to noise. If this is not possible, it is mandatory to use personal prostasiasapo worker measures.
Chemicals: chemicals known to man amount to several ekattomyria. The risks to health and safety from different mechanisms of action of these substances. There are substances flammable, toxic, corrosive, carcinogenic, etc.. The simplest way to deal with risk is the classification of substances into a few main categories and their proper labeling with easily recognizable symbols.